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Independence Day (India)

 Independence Day (India)

India's Independence Day (English: Independence Day of India, Hindi: Independence Day of India, Sanskrit: "Swatantradinotsavah") is celebrated every year on 15 August. On this day in 1947, the residents of India got independence from British rule. It is the national festival of India.

Every year on this day the Prime Minister of India addresses the country from the ramparts of the Red Fort. On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, unfurled the Indian National Flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. In the Indian freedom struggle under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, people largely participated in non-violent resistance and civil disobedience movements. After independence, British India was divided into religious lines, with the emergence of India and Pakistan. After the partition, violent riots broke out in both countries and there were many incidents of communal violence. Never in the history of mankind has there been a displacement of such a large number of people due to partition. This number was around 1.45 crore. According to the 1951 Census of India, 72,26,000 Muslims left India and went to Pakistan immediately after the partition and 72,49,000 Hindus and Sikhs left Pakistan and came to India.

The day is celebrated all over India with flag hoisting ceremonies, parades, and cultural events. Indians celebrate this festival by displaying the national flag on their dress, belongings, homes, and vehicles and watching patriotic movies, listening to patriotic songs with family and friends.


Main article: Independence of India

European traders began to establish a foothold in the Indian subcontinent in the 17th century. Increasing its military power, the East India Company established itself by subjugating the local states by the end of the 18th century. After the First Indian War of Independence of 1857, according to the Government of India Act 1858, the direct suzerainty of India went to the British Crown, that is, the monarchy of Britain. Decades later, civil society gradually developed itself and this resulted in the formation of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1885. The period after the First World War is known as the period of British Reforms, which counts as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, but is also seen as a suppressive act like the Rowlatt Act, which led to calls for self-government by Indian social reformers. to be done. This resulted in the beginning of non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements and nationwide non-violent movements under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

British laws continued to be gradually reformed during the 1930s; Congress won the resulting elections. The next decade was full of political turmoil: India's participation in World War II, the final decision of non-cooperation by the Congress, and the rise of Muslim nationalism by the All India Muslim League. By the time of independence in 1947, political tensions escalated. The festivities of this subcontinent culminated in the partition of India and Pakistan.

independence day before independence

In the 1929 Lahore session, the Indian National Congress declared Purna Swaraj and declared 26 January as Republic Day. The Congress asked the people of India to pledge themselves to commit civil disobedience and follow the instructions of the Congress issued from time to time till the attainment of complete independence.

Such Independence Day celebrations were organized to infuse nationalist fuel among Indian citizens and also to compel the British government to consider granting independence. Congress celebrated 26 January as Independence Day between 1930 and 1950. In this, people used to take the oath of independence together. Jawaharlal Nehru has described in his autobiography that such meetings were peaceful and solemn, without any speech or sermon. Gandhiji said that apart from the meetings, this day should be spent doing some constructive work like spinning or spinning or reunion of Hindus and Muslims or prohibition work, or service to the untouchables. After de facto independence in 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950; Since then 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day.

immediate background

In 1946, the treasury of Britain's Labor government was in disrepair after the recently ended World War II. Then he realized he had neither the mandate at home nor the international backing. Due to this, they were also losing the credibility of the indigenous forces to control the increasingly restless India. In February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-administration to British India from June 1948. Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy, pushed the transfer date because he felt that the continuing dispute between the Congress and the Muslim League could lead to the collapse of the Interim Government. He chose 15 August, the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II, as the date for the transfer of power. The British government accepted the idea of ​​dividing British India into two states on 3 June 1947 and also declared that the successor governments would be given independent sovereignty and full right to secede from the British Commonwealth.

According to the Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 and 11 Geo 6 c. 30) of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, with effect from 15 August 1947, British India (now including Bangladesh) was divided into two new independent colonies called India and Pakistan and the new countries belonging to the Gave full constitutional rights to the constituent assemblies. Royal assent was given to this act on 18 July 1947.

freedom and partition

Declaration of India's independence on 15 August 1947 in Hindustan Times newspaper.

08.30 am - Oath ceremony of Governor General and Ministers at Government House

09.40 am – Departure of the Constituent Assembly and Ministers

09.50 am – State Drive till the Constituent Assembly

09.55 am - Royal salute to the Governor General

10.30 am – Unfurling of the National Flag at the Constituent Assembly

10.35 am – State Drive till Government House

06.00 PM – Flag Ceremony at India Gate

07.00 pm – Prakash

07.45 pm – Aatish Baazi Performance

08.45 pm – Official Dinner at Government House

10.15 pm – Reception at Government House

15 August 1947 Day Program

Lakhs of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees traveled on foot across the new frontiers prepared after independence. There was widespread bloodshed in Punjab, where borders divided the Sikh territories, and violence erupted in Bengal and Bihar as well, but the presence of Mahatma Gandhi reduced the communal violence. Between 250,000 and 1 million people died in the violence on either side of the new borders. While the whole country was celebrating Independence Day, Gandhiji stopped in Calcutta in an attempt to stop the massacre, but on 14 August 1947, Pakistan's Independence Day was declared and a new country named Pakistan came into existence; Muhammad Ali Jinnah took oath as the first Governor General in Karachi.

The Constituent Assembly of India met its fifth session on 14 August at 11 am at the Constitution Hall in New Delhi. President Rajendra Prasad presided over the session. In this session, Jawaharlal Nehru, declaring India's independence, gave a speech called Try with Destiny.

The members of the Sabha formally took an oath to serve the country. A group of women representing the women of India formally presented the national flag to the assembly. Official ceremonies took place in New Delhi after which India became an independent country. Nehru took office as the first prime minister, and Viceroy Lord Mountbatten took over as the first governor-general. People celebrated the occasion with the name of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi himself, however, did not take any part in the official events. Instead, he spoke to a crowd in Calcutta to encourage peace between Hindus and Muslims, during which he went on a 24-hour fast.

On 15 August 1947 at 11:00 am, the Constituent Assembly started the celebration of India's independence, in which the rights were transferred. As the hour of midnight came, India gained its independence and became an independent nation.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, gave his famous speech on this day called Try with Destiny:

Many years ago, we made a promise to destiny, and now the time has come for us to keep our promise, if not completely but to a great extent. At midnight, when the world is asleep, India will wake up to life and freedom. Such a moment comes, but rarely in history when we step out of the old into a new era when an era comes to an end when a nation's long-suppressed soul is set free. It is a coincidence that on this holy occasion we are pledging to dedicate ourselves to the service of India and its people and above all to serve humanity... Today we are ending an era of misfortune. And India is finding itself again. The achievement we are celebrating today is only one step towards the opening of new opportunities. Even greater victories and achievements await us. To serve India means to serve lakhs and crores of victims. It means eradicating poverty, ignorance, and inequality of opportunity. It is the wish of the greatest man of our generation that tears should be wiped out of every eye. It may not be possible for us, but as long as people have tears in their eyes, our work will not end. Today once again after years of struggle, India is awake and free. The future is calling us. Where should we go and what should we do, so that we can bring freedom and opportunities to common man, farmers and workers, we can eradicate poverty, make a prosperous, democratic and progressive country. How can we create such social, economic and political institutions that can ensure the fullness and justice of life for every man and woman? No country can become great as long as the thoughts or deeds of its people are narrow.

— Tryst with Destiny speech excerpts, Jawaharlal Nehru

This speech is considered one of the greatest speeches of the 20th century.



Independence Day is celebrated around the world with parades and competitions in areas of high concentration of Indian diaspora, especially in areas of high concentration of Indian immigrants. In some places in New York and other American cities, August 15 has become India Day among the diaspora and the local population. Here people celebrate India Day around 15th August or on the last day of the week and hold competitions.

at the national level

The first citizen of the country and the President of the country gives "Address to the Nation" on the eve of Independence Day. After this, the next day the tricolor flag is hoisted at the Red Fort in Delhi, which is given a 21-gun salute. After this the Prime Minister addresses the country. After the event, school students and members of the National Cadet Corps sing the national anthem. This colorful program, full of patriotism, organized in the Red Fort, is broadcast live (live) across the country by the country's public broadcasting service Doordarshan (Channel). On the eve of Independence Day, the national capital and all government buildings are decorated with colorful lights, which is the most attractive event of the evening.

at the state/local level

A special flag hoisting program is organized in the capital of all the states of the country, and the security forces of the state salute the national flag. In each state, the Chief Minister hoists the flag. Similar programs are also organized in local administration, district administration, urban bodies, panchayats. Government buildings are decorated with attractive flowers like tricolor. Small scale educational institutions, residential associations, cultural centers and political meetings are organized.

Another very popular activity that symbolizes the spirit of freedom is kite flying (mostly in Delhi and Gujarat). Thousands of colorful kites can be seen in the sky, these dazzling kites can be seen on the roofs and grounds of every Indian's house and these kites have their own special way of organizing the occasion.

security threats

Three years after independence, the Naga National Council called for a boycott of Independence Day in North East India. Separatist protests in the region intensified in the 1980s and there were reports of terrorist attacks and boycotts from the ULFA and Bodoland's National Democratic Front of Bodoland. With the rise in militancy in Jammu and Kashmir since the 1980s, separatist protesters boycotted Independence Day there by shutting down, displaying black flags and burning flags.

Simultaneously, threats have also been issued by terrorist organizations like Lashkar-e-Taiba, Hizbul Mujahideen and Jaish-e-Mohammed and attacks have been carried out around Independence Day. The boycott of the festival was advocated by the rebel Maoist organisations. Security measures are tightened, especially in the major cities of the troubled states of Delhi, Mumbai and Jammu and Kashmir, especially in anticipation of terrorist attacks by terrorists. The area around the Red Fort is declared a no-fly zone to avoid air raids and additional police forces are assigned to other areas.

 It is also deployed in cities.

In popular culture

On Independence Day and Republic Day, Hindi patriotic songs and in regional languages ​​are broadcast on television and radio channels. They are also played along with the flag hoisting ceremony. Patriotic films are also broadcast, according to the Times of India, the number of such films has come down. Designer clothes dyed in three colors for the new generation are also visible during this time.

Retail stores offer discounts for sales on Independence Day. Some news channels have condemned the commercialization of this day. The Indian Postal Service publishes postage stamps on 15 August on freedom movement leaders, nationalist themes and defense related topics. On the Internet, since 2003, Google celebrates Independence Day with a special Google Doodle on its Indian homepage.


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